Negen 360

The analysis of genetic risk and lifestyle risk is based on the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) National FINRISK Study.

What do the tests reveal?

A gene test provides an estimate of your hereditary risk of contracting the tested disease. The scope of the risk is disease-specific: Although many diseases are caused by a combination of genes and lifestyle factors, some diseases are purely hereditary (genetic) in origin.

The gene test does not provide you with a specific timeframe for contracting a disease. It gives an estimate of your disease risk, taking into consideration that other factors may also affect that risk. Even a person with a high genetic risk will not necessarily ever contract the disease, such as coronary heart disease, because the incidence of the disease also depends on lifestyle and environment.

How genetic information affects relatives

Because your genome is partially similar to that of your close relatives, the information you receive on your gene test may also contain information on their own genome and health. When taking a gene test, keep in mind that the results may affect your close relatives. Each and every individual has the right to decide whether they would like to receive genetic information on themselves. This is why we hope that you will respect the wishes of your relatives as to whether they would like to know the results of your gene test or not.

Why should I test myself?

You will receive an analysis of how your genome affects any predisposition to national diseases as well as the overall risk, in which your lifestyle is also taken into account.

If you have an increased risk, the most beneficial phase of the process is to test your genome data with the risk calculator to determine what lifestyle changes would have the most positive impact on your health. This will allow you to prioritise the most significant lifestyle change you could make to reduce your risk effectively and sustainably.

Knowing your genetic risk also helps in determining the ideal level of treatment you will need. If your genetic risk is very high, medical treatment may be needed, and the level of treatment will be set accordingly.

Genetic data significantly increases the effectiveness of disease prevention and treatment.

Genetic panels included in the test

Tyypin 2 diabetesta (aikuistyypin diabetes) sairastaa Suomessa n. 500 000 ihmistä ja se on merkittävimpiä kansantautejamme. Diabetes voi johtaa useisiin lisäsairauksiin, kuten verkkokalvon, munuaisten ja ääreishermoston vaurioitumiseen.

Tyypin 2 diabetes syntyy perimän, elintapojen ja ympäristön yhteisvaikutuksesta. Samat geenit, jotka suojasivat esi-isiämme menehtymästä ravinnon puutteeseen, edistävät nykyihmisessä sairastumista aikuistyypin diabetekseen. Alttius sairastua periytyy voimakkaasti: riski on kaksinkertainen, jos toisella vanhemmista on tyypin 2 diabetes ja viisinkertainen, jos tauti on molemmilla vanhemmilla. Elintapariskeistä merkittävin on ylipaino.

Aikuistyypin diabeteksen hoitoon on useita lääkkeitä. Diabetesta sairastavien hoidossa erityistä huomiota kiinnitetään lisäksi kolesteroli- ja verenpainearvoihin.

Geneettinen riski lasketaan polygeenisen riskisumman avulla, jossa koko perimänlaajuinen tieto yhdistetään yhdeksi luvuksi, joka kuvaa perintötekijöistä löytyneitä assosiaatioita tyypin 2 diabetekseen.

Negenin genomitesti arvioi riskiäsi sairastua tyypin 2 diabetekseen sekä geneettisen riskin, että elintavat huomoiden.

Viitteet

  • Genet Med. 2017 Mar;19(3):322-329. Personalized risk prediction for type 2 diabetes: the potential of genetic risk scores. doi: 10.1038/gim.2016.103
  • Nat Genet 2018 Aug;50: 1219–1224 Genome-wide polygenic scores for common diseases identify individuals with risk equivalent to monogenic mutations. doi: 10.1038/s41588-018-0183-z
Genetic variants included 1000

Sydän- ja verisuonitaudit ovat yleisiä. Noin 200 000 suomalaisella on diagnosoitu sepelvaltimotauti ja moni sairastaa tautia myös tietämättään. Sairaus johtuu sydäntä ravitsevien sepelvaltimoiden ahtautumisesta. Tyypillisiä oireita ovat rintakipu, hengenahdistus ja suorituskyvyn lasku. Pahimmillaan sepelvaltimotauti voi johtaa sydäninfarktiin.

Sepelvaltimotaudin syntyyn vaikuttavat sekä geneettinen alttius että elintavat. Keskeisiä riskitekijöitä ovat ikä, tupakointi, rasva-aineenvaihdunnan häiriöt, miessukupuoli, korkea verenpaine ja psykofyysinen stressi.

Geneettinen riski lasketaan polygeenisen riskisumman (PRS) avulla, jossa koko perimänlaajuinen tieto yhdistetään yhdeksi luvuksi, joka kuvaa perintötekijöistä löytyneitä assosiaatioita sepelvaltimotautiin.

Negenin genomitesti arvioi riskiäsi sairastua sepelvaltimotautiin sekä geneettisen riskin että elintavat huomoiden. Geneettinen analyysi perustuu tieteellisissä julkaisuissa todettuihin geenilöydöksiin.

Viitteet

  • European Heart Journal 2016 Nov; 37(43): 3267–3278. Genomic prediction of coronary heart disease. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehw450
Genetic variants included 49310

Veren kolesteroliaineenvaihdunnan häiriöt eli dyslipidemiat lisäävät riskiä sairastua sydän- ja verisuonisairauksiin sekä Alzheimerin tautiin. Testimme avulla voit selvittää onko sinulla perinnöllistä taipumusta rasva-aineenvaihdunnan häiriöihin.

Viitteet

  • Nat Genet. 2013 Nov;45(11):1274-83. Discovery and Refinement of Loci Associated with Lipid Levels. doi: 10.1038/ng.2797
Genetic variants included 204

Kohonnut verenpaine on sydän- ja verisuonitautien tärkeä riskitekijä. Erityisen tärkeää verenpaineen hoito on diabeetikoilla. Korkea verenpaine lisää myös Alzheimerin taudin riskiä.

Verenpainelukemiin vaikuttavat sekä yläpaine eli systolinen verenpaine että alapaine eli diastolinen verenpaine. Sekä ylä- että alapaineen tausta on osittain geneettinen ja molempiin tunnetaan lukuisia vaikuttavia geenivariantteja.

Testimme avulla voit selvittää onko sinulla perinnöllistä taipumusta korkeaan verenpaineeseen.

Viitteet

  • Nat Genet. 2016 Oct;48(10):1171-84. The genetics of blood pressure regulation and its target organs from association studies in 342415 individuals. doi: 10.1038/ng.3667
  • Nature 2011 Sep 11;478(7367):103-9. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk. doi: 10.1038/nature10405
Genetic variants included 119

Ylipaino on seurausta liiallisesta energiansaannista suhteessa energian kulutukseen pitkällä aikavälillä. Yksilöllinen alttius lihomiseen on osittain geneettisesti säänneltyä. Testimme avulla voit selvittää geneettistä taipumustasi ylipainoon.

Viitteet

  • Nature. 2015 Feb 12;518(7538):197-206. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology. doi: 10.1038/nature14177
  • Nat Genet. 2010 Nov;42(11):937-48. Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index. doi: 10.1038/ng.686
  • Hum Mol Genet. 2013 Sep 1;22(17):3597-607. Genome-wide analysis of BMI in adolescents and young adults reveals additional insight into the effects of genetic loci over the life course. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddt205
  • Nat Genet. 2013 May;45(5):501-12. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture. doi: 10.1038/ng.2606
  • PLoS Genet. 2009 Jun;5(6):e1000539. NRXN3 is a novel locus for waist circumference: a genome-wide association study from the CHARGE Consortium. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000539
  • Nat Genet. 2009 Feb;41(2):157-9. Genome-wide association study for early-onset and morbid adult obesity identifies three new risk loci in European populations. doi: 10.1038/ng.301
  • Nat Genet. 2012 May 13;44(6):659-69. A genome-wide approach accounting for body mass index identifies genetic variants influencing fasting glycemic traits and insulin resistance. doi: 10.1038/ng.2274
  • Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Mar;20(3):622-7. Genome-wide association of BMI in African Americans. doi: 10.1038/oby.2011.154
  • Hum Mol Genet. 2016 Jan 15;25(2):389-403. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddv472
Genetic variants included 97

Miten Negen genomitesti tehdään?

1. Lifestyle questionnaire

Using an online lifestyle questionnaire, we determine the impact that environmental factors and external lifestyle factors will have on your body. The lifestyle questionnaire is a key part of the test, ensuring that your report is as accurate and reliable as possible. You can fill out the lifestyle questionnaire after logging into the Negen website.

2. Gene analysis

Your DNA will be extracted from a saliva sample. After You order a genomic analysis, we will send You a test kit that contains all necessary equipment for a high quality sample. We conduct a technical analysis of your genome to determine how hereditary factors affect your risk of contracting a disease based on scientifically verifiable risk factors. Gene analysis is based on markers, i.e. a known point on a chromosome in a person's DNA sequence. In Negen's tests genetic markers are selected by a Finnish genetic research team based on scientifically proven studies and articles.

3. Easy-to-understand reports

An easy-to-understand report is created from the combined results of the gene analysis information and lifestyle questionnaire responses. The accuracy of our report is further enhanced by an extensive volume of genetic material, with which your personal results can be compared. The report includes practical advice on how to minimise possible risk factors. The genetic and lifestyle risk assessment is based on Finnish population data maintained by National Institute for Welfare and Health (THL).

4. Physician network support

We have partnership agreements with physicians practising in different fields of medicine to conduct follow-up examinations or address findings requiring treatment. If the test results indicate a need for a follow-up examination or monitoring, we can recommend a medical specialist from our physician network.

5. Future possibilities

New genetic findings affecting health are constantly being made. We develop our service based on these new findings, utilising the latest research results to promote your health.

Tutustu muihin tilattaviin genomitesteihin

Negen - Diabetes

In the Negen - Diabetes analysis, we examine the impact that your genome and lifestyles have on your risk of diabetes. The test includes an analysis of Type 2 diabetes as well as the conventional risk factors for Type 2 diabetes (predisposition to overweight, lipids and blood pressure).

Negen - Heart

In the Negen - Heart analysis, we examine the impact that your genome and lifestyles have on your risk of coronary heart disease. The test also includes an analysis of major risk factors: predisposition to overweight or obesity, lipids and blood pressure.