Negen - Diabetes

The analysis of genetic risk and lifestyle risk is based on the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) National FINRISK Study.

Diabetes is one of Finland's biggest national diseases. There are approximately 500,000 diabetics in Finland. In addition to these, it is estimated that there are some 150,000 people suffering from Type 2 diabetes without their knowledge. Both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are multifactorial diseases, which are caused by genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors. In the analysis, we examine your risk of contracting diabetes by conducting a gene test and lifestyle questionnaire.

The Negen - Diabetes gene test package contains a total of 237 genetic variants related to diabetes and its common risk factors. When these are combined with the responses to the lifestyle questionnaire, they provide an estimate of your risk of contracting diabetes. The manner in which environmental factors affect the individual risk of contracting Type 1 diabetes is still not fully understood.

Genetic panels included in the test

Tyypin 2 diabetesta (aikuistyypin diabetes) sairastaa Suomessa n. 500 000 ihmistä ja se on merkittävimpiä kansantautejamme. Diabetes voi johtaa useisiin lisäsairauksiin, kuten verkkokalvon, munuaisten ja ääreishermoston vaurioitumiseen.

Tyypin 2 diabetes syntyy perimän, elintapojen ja ympäristön yhteisvaikutuksesta. Samat geenit, jotka suojasivat esi-isiämme menehtymästä ravinnon puutteeseen, edistävät nykyihmisessä sairastumista aikuistyypin diabetekseen. Alttius sairastua periytyy voimakkaasti: riski on kaksinkertainen, jos toisella vanhemmista on tyypin 2 diabetes ja viisinkertainen, jos tauti on molemmilla vanhemmilla. Elintapariskeistä merkittävin on ylipaino.

Aikuistyypin diabeteksen hoitoon on useita lääkkeitä. Diabetesta sairastavien hoidossa erityistä huomiota kiinnitetään lisäksi kolesteroli- ja verenpainearvoihin.

Geneettinen riski lasketaan polygeenisen riskisumman avulla, jossa koko perimänlaajuinen tieto yhdistetään yhdeksi luvuksi, joka kuvaa perintötekijöistä löytyneitä assosiaatioita tyypin 2 diabetekseen.

Negenin genomitesti arvioi riskiäsi sairastua tyypin 2 diabetekseen sekä geneettisen riskin, että elintavat huomoiden.

Viitteet

  • Genet Med. 2017 Mar;19(3):322-329. Personalized risk prediction for type 2 diabetes: the potential of genetic risk scores. doi: 10.1038/gim.2016.103
  • Nat Genet 2018 Aug;50: 1219–1224 Genome-wide polygenic scores for common diseases identify individuals with risk equivalent to monogenic mutations. doi: 10.1038/s41588-018-0183-z
Genetic variants included 1000

Ylipaino on seurausta liiallisesta energiansaannista suhteessa energian kulutukseen pitkällä aikavälillä. Yksilöllinen alttius lihomiseen on osittain geneettisesti säänneltyä. Testimme avulla voit selvittää geneettistä taipumustasi ylipainoon.

Viitteet

  • Nature. 2015 Feb 12;518(7538):197-206. Genetic studies of body mass index yield new insights for obesity biology. doi: 10.1038/nature14177
  • Nat Genet. 2010 Nov;42(11):937-48. Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index. doi: 10.1038/ng.686
  • Hum Mol Genet. 2013 Sep 1;22(17):3597-607. Genome-wide analysis of BMI in adolescents and young adults reveals additional insight into the effects of genetic loci over the life course. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddt205
  • Nat Genet. 2013 May;45(5):501-12. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture. doi: 10.1038/ng.2606
  • PLoS Genet. 2009 Jun;5(6):e1000539. NRXN3 is a novel locus for waist circumference: a genome-wide association study from the CHARGE Consortium. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000539
  • Nat Genet. 2009 Feb;41(2):157-9. Genome-wide association study for early-onset and morbid adult obesity identifies three new risk loci in European populations. doi: 10.1038/ng.301
  • Nat Genet. 2012 May 13;44(6):659-69. A genome-wide approach accounting for body mass index identifies genetic variants influencing fasting glycemic traits and insulin resistance. doi: 10.1038/ng.2274
  • Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Mar;20(3):622-7. Genome-wide association of BMI in African Americans. doi: 10.1038/oby.2011.154
  • Hum Mol Genet. 2016 Jan 15;25(2):389-403. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddv472
Genetic variants included 97

Veren kolesteroliaineenvaihdunnan häiriöt eli dyslipidemiat lisäävät riskiä sairastua sydän- ja verisuonisairauksiin sekä Alzheimerin tautiin. Testimme avulla voit selvittää onko sinulla perinnöllistä taipumusta rasva-aineenvaihdunnan häiriöihin.

Viitteet

  • Nat Genet. 2013 Nov;45(11):1274-83. Discovery and Refinement of Loci Associated with Lipid Levels. doi: 10.1038/ng.2797
Genetic variants included 204

Kohonnut verenpaine on sydän- ja verisuonitautien tärkeä riskitekijä. Erityisen tärkeää verenpaineen hoito on diabeetikoilla. Korkea verenpaine lisää myös Alzheimerin taudin riskiä.

Verenpainelukemiin vaikuttavat sekä yläpaine eli systolinen verenpaine että alapaine eli diastolinen verenpaine. Sekä ylä- että alapaineen tausta on osittain geneettinen ja molempiin tunnetaan lukuisia vaikuttavia geenivariantteja.

Testimme avulla voit selvittää onko sinulla perinnöllistä taipumusta korkeaan verenpaineeseen.

Viitteet

  • Nat Genet. 2016 Oct;48(10):1171-84. The genetics of blood pressure regulation and its target organs from association studies in 342415 individuals. doi: 10.1038/ng.3667
  • Nature 2011 Sep 11;478(7367):103-9. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk. doi: 10.1038/nature10405
Genetic variants included 119

How Negen's preventive pathway works?

1. Genome analysis

Your DNA will be extracted from a saliva sample. After You order a genomic analysis, we will send You a test kit that contains all necessary equipment for a high quality sample. We conduct a technical analysis of your genome to determine how hereditary factors affect your risk of contracting a disease based on scientifically verifiable risk factors. Gene analysis is based on markers, i.e. a known point on a chromosome in a person's DNA sequence. In Negen's tests genetic markers are selected by a Finnish genetic research team based on scientifically proven studies and articles.

2. Lifestyle questionnaire

Using an online lifestyle questionnaire, we determine the impact that environmental factors and external lifestyle factors will have on your body. The lifestyle questionnaire is a key part of the test, ensuring that your report is as accurate and reliable as possible. You can fill out the lifestyle questionnaire after logging into the Negen website.

3. Easy-to-understand reports

An easy-to-understand report is created from the combined results of the gene analysis information and lifestyle questionnaire responses. The accuracy of our report is further enhanced by an extensive volume of genetic material, with which your personal results can be compared. The report includes practical advice on how to minimise possible risk factors. The genetic and lifestyle risk assessment is based on Finnish population data maintained by National Institute for Welfare and Health (THL).

4. Physician network support

We have partnership agreements with physicians practising in different fields of medicine to conduct follow-up examinations or address findings requiring treatment. If the test results indicate a need for a follow-up examination or monitoring, we can recommend a medical specialist from our physician network.

5. Future possibilities

New genetic findings affecting health are constantly being made. We develop our service based on these new findings, utilising the latest research results to promote your health.

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